Most of human history is a record of conflict and it seems that is what humans do the best and the most of. As civilization emerged, marauder-type societies also developed that lived by strength, taking what they wanted from others by force. Throughout antiquity, if a conquered people were not killed during a raid they usually became the slaves of the victors and all of their possessions became the victor’s booty.
As civilizations developed, prospered and became more complex, they formed organized defenses to abate the foregoing problems. Because of conflict, civilization could not have developed without the protection of militaries. The earliest armies and defenses were developed to create stabler more productive and prosperous societies. As civilization emerged so did many different forms of political systems. One of the more common systems of antiquity was some form of monarchy.
As civilizations advanced, they also sought ways to provide safety inside their settlements. Defensive measures such as city walls were one of the innovations that helped to protect many early societies. This type of fortification was common throughout Mesopotamia, thought to be the birthplace of civilization. Mesopotamia was located more-or-less in present-day Iraq. As this area of the world developed, Babylon became the world’s first great empire and eventually formed the world’s first great army. The Babylonians used the best technologies available to augment their influence throughout the region. Some of these included metal helmets, spears and wheeled chariots.